Thursday, May 21, 2020

How to Calculate Backgammon Probabilities

Backgammon is a game that employs the use of two standard dice.   The dice used in this game are six-sided cubes, and the faces of a die have one, two, three, four, five or six pips. During a turn in backgammon a player may move his or her checkers or draughts according to the numbers shown on the dice. The numbers rolled can be split between two checkers, or they can be totaled and used for a single checker. For example, when a 4 and a 5 are rolled, a player has two options: he may move one checker four spaces and another one five spaces, or one checker can be moved a total of nine spaces. To formulate strategies in backgammon it is helpful to know some basic probabilities. Since a player can use one or two dice to move a particular checker, any calculation of probabilities will keep this in mind. For our backgammon probabilities, we will answer the question, â€Å"When we roll two dice, what is the probability of rolling the number n as either a sum of two dice, or on at least one of the two dice?† Calculation of the Probabilities For a single die that is not loaded, each side is equally likely to land face up. A single die forms a uniform sample space. There are a total of six outcomes, corresponding to each of the integers from 1 to 6. Thus each number has a probability of 1/6 of occurring. When we roll two dice, each die is independent of the other. If we keep track of the order of what number occurs on each of the dice, then there are a total of 6 x 6 36 equally likely outcomes. Thus 36 is the denominator for all of our probabilities and any particular outcome of two dice has a probability of 1/36. Rolling At Least One of a Number The probability of rolling two dice and getting at least one of a number from 1 to 6 is straightforward to calculate. If we wish to determine the probability of rolling at least one 2 with two dice, we need to know how many of the 36 possible outcomes include at least one 2. The ways of doing this are: (1, 2), (2, 2), (3, 2), (4, 2), (5, 2), (6, 2), (2, 1), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (2, 6) Thus there are 11 ways to roll at least one 2 with two dice, and the probability of rolling at least one 2 with two dice is 11/36. There is nothing special about 2 in the preceding discussion. For any given number n from 1 to 6: There are five ways to roll exactly one of that number on the first die.There are five ways to roll exactly one of that number on the second die.There is one way to roll that number on both dice. Therefore there are 11 ways to roll at least one n from 1 to 6 using two dice. The probability of this occurring is 11/36. Rolling a Particular Sum Any number from two to 12 can be obtained as the sum of two dice. The probabilities for two dice are slightly more difficult to calculate. Since there are different ways to reach these sums, they do not form a uniform sample space. For instance, there are three ways to roll a sum of four: (1, 3), (2, 2), (3, 1), but only two ways to roll a sum of 11: (5, 6), (6, 5). The probability of rolling a sum of a particular number is as follows: The probability of rolling a sum of two is 1/36.The probability of rolling a sum of three is 2/36.The probability of rolling a sum of four is 3/36.The probability of rolling a sum of five is 4/36.The probability of rolling a sum of six is 5/36.The probability of rolling a sum of seven is 6/36.The probability of rolling a sum of eight is 5/36.The probability of rolling a sum of nine is 4/36.The probability of rolling a sum of ten is 3/36.The probability of rolling a sum of eleven is 2/36.The probability of rolling a sum of twelve is 1/36. Backgammon Probabilities At long last we have everything we need to calculate probabilities for backgammon. Rolling at least one of a number is mutually exclusive from rolling this number as a sum of two dice. Thus we can use the addition rule to add the probabilities together for obtaining any number from 2 to 6. For example, the probability of rolling at least one 6 out of two dice is 11/36. Rolling a 6 as a sum of two dice is 5/36. The probability of rolling at least one 6 or rolling a six as a sum of two dice is 11/36 5/36 16/36. Other probabilities can be calculated in a similar manner.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of At The Abbey Theater By Rory O Neill

At the Abbey Theater in Dublin, Rory O Neill, a LGBT activist and drag queen known as Panti, confessed that he was a homophobe like everyone else. Panti explained that to grow up in a society that is overwhelmingly homophobic and to escape unscathed would be miraculous.† As a black man, I am very aware of racism and how it operates whether institutionally, internally or personally mediated. As a gay man, something I am still trying to deconstruct, I have been oblivious, perhaps intentionally, to my internalized homophobia. This dissonance in self-awareness is partially due to the fact that I knew I was black from early childhood but did not realize I was gay until sixth grade and did not begin to even accept it until twelfth. Many people compare the struggles of being black to that of being gay. In my opinion, despite some similarities the struggles are completely different. One is rooted in the legacy of over 200 years of slavery and the other in the tradition in people trying to cure homosexuality. One is more of an external conflict, the other internal. When I am followed around in stores like J.Crew or Saks, I am outraged and speak up. Realizing that ignorant people need to be educated, I usually write a letter to the VP of the company or loudly claim that I am being racially harassed in front of other customers. And it works. The VP s call me back and apologize, the staff goes through a sensitivity training, and I usually get a gift card with a hefty sum. On

Renal Problems And Septic Shock Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

string(104) " analysis and repeated freezing melt of samples was avoided in order to forestall debasement of plasma\." Systemic inflammatory response syndrome ( SIRS ) is expressed as febrility or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnea which may be associated with leucocytosis or leukopenia. SIRS generates broad spread inflammatory reaction in organic structure in response to external abuse which is protective for an person when its effects are restricted to pathogens, in other state of affairss inflammatory reactions are hurtful when they are directed against normal tissues in add-on to pathogens. [ 1,2 ] SIRS can ensue from legion conditions but termed as Sepsis, merely when infection sets in and morbific agent is detected. We will write a custom essay sample on Renal Problems And Septic Shock Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Sepsis consequences from an single response to external infection, which begins with systemic redness ab initio, followed by curdling abnormalcies and eventually deranged fibrinolysis. When sepsis causes one or more organ disfunction, the syndrome is termed Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome ( MODS ) or terrible sepsis. [ 3 ] Sepsis-induced hypotension which is furnace lining to fluid boluses is termed Septic daze. Hypothermia associated with infected daze indicates hapless tegument and visceral perfusion, is normally associated with hapless forecast and high mortality rates of up to 30 to 40 % . Several serum biomarkers suggested holding diagnostic or predictive value in infected daze, but a unequivocal biomarker for everyday clinical usage is yet to be identified. One such marker is serum lactate which indicates pronounced hypoperfusion and tissue hypoxia in infected daze. Similarly serum Creatinine should besides be considered as marker of lessening organ perfusion in sepsis and Acute Kidney Injury should be regarded as index of ongoing organ harm and likely possibility of oncoming of infected daze. [ 4 ] AKI is due to sudden and drastic decrease in kidney map ( within 48 hours ) characterized by absolute addition in serum Creatinine ( gt ; 50 % from baseline ) or a decrease in urine end product ( oliguria of lt ; 0.5 ml/kg/hour for gt ; 6 hours ) . Nephritic hypoperfusion and ischaemia during infected daze amendss nephritic tubules taking to acute cannular mortification ( ATN ) and have been demonstrated to be a common etiologic factor for AKI development during sepsis [ 5,6 ] . ATN was found to be a consistent histopathological determination in these patients, this would strongly propose that ischaemia and nephritic tubular cell mortification are likely an of import pathogenetic mechanism. [ 7,8 ] Acute kidney hurt have marked impact on the result of critically sick patients. Disease badness tonss such as the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation ( APACHE II ) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment mark ( SOFA ) both have included nephritic disfunction as forecaster of morbidity and mortality ; on the other manus liver disfunction tonss, coagulopathy, thrombocytes and other critical organ maps are non much stressed in APACHE II hiting system. To set up a unvarying definition of nephritic harm, RIFLE categorization was formulated which characterizes Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage Kidney ( RIFLE ) . [ 9 ] An of import facet of the RIFLE categorization is that it grades the badness of acute kidney hurt on the footing of alterations in serum creatinine and urine end product from the baseline status. [ 10 ] Urine end product is an of import physiologic mark of organic structure fluid position, and unstable instability is common in critically sick patients due to extravasation of fluid into extravascular infinite or due to 3rd infinite losingss and eventually the nephritic disfunction. This farther suggest that reduced organ perfusion in infected daze plays a cardinal function in development of AKI taking to cut down creatinine clearance and increased serum creatinine degrees. [ 11,12 ] In this survey we compared increasing serum creatinine degrees with plasma lactates and SOFA tonss to observe oncoming of sepsis and infected daze and to prove the hypothesis that ongoing acute kidney hurt can bespeak reduced organ perfusion and oncoming of infected daze in critically sick patients. Patients and Methods: This survey was carried out to happen a correlativity between lifting serum creatinine degrees and oncoming of infected daze in 115 critically sick patients admitted in ICU and were managed following Surviving Sepsis guidelines. [ 13 ] Human ethical blessing was taken by the institutional moralss commission. Written informed consents were obtained from control topics and patients or their relations. The control groups were the healthy relations attach toing the patient. Entire 90 controls were taken, among them 65 were males and 25 females with a mean ( SD ) age of 36.5 ( 8 ) old ages. Among patient group 67 were males and 48 females with mean ( SD ) age 37.5 ( 6 ) old ages. Patients included in our survey had either of the undermentioned characteristics: ( 1 ) Clinical characteristics proposing infection ; ( 2 ) Core temperature gt ; 38AÂ °C or lt ; 35AÂ °C ; ( 3 ) Heart beats gt ; 100/min ; ( 4 ) Respiratory rates gt ; 30 breaths/min or demand for supportive mechanical airing and ( 5 ) Inadequate organ map or daze within 12 hours of registration. Patients excluded were: ( 1 ) aged patients older than 75 old ages ; ( 2 ) NYHA category III or IV patients ; ( 3 ) liver inadequacy ( Child C ) ; ( 4 ) HIV, HBsAg positive serology, Cancer patients. Demographic characteristics like age, sex, primary site of infection, morbific beings and disease badness scores including Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Scores ( APACHE II ) and Sequential Organ system Failure Assessment mark ( SOFA ) were recorded for each patient ‘s at the clip of admittance in ICU and later. The plasma of these patients was tested for serum creatinine and lactates degrees at the clip of entry in ICU, so after every 24 hours till their stay in ICU. All the samples collected and patient inside informations gathered during the survey were coded to look into for prejudice and patient confidentiality was maintained as per the guidelines for surveies of human patients. Blood sample aggregation: First blood sample was collected prior to get down of antimicrobic, steroid therapy or vasopressors. Blood samples were collected from cardinal venous line ( 9 milliliter ) into sterilized tubings incorporating 1ml trisodium citrate ( TSC ) at the clip of patient admittance I ICU and later. Plasma was separated by extractor at 10,000 revolutions per minute for 15 min. The plasma was stored at -70AÂ °C for farther analysis and repeated freezing melt of samples was avoided in order to forestall debasement of plasma. You read "Renal Problems And Septic Shock Health And Social Care Essay" in category "Essay examples" Statistical analysis: The informations were analyzed by nonparametric analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) with Newman-Keuls multiple comparing post-test. The relation between serum creatinine degrees, plasma lactates and APACHE A ; SOFA mark was tested by finding the Pearson correlativity coefficient ( R ) . A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered important. All statistical analyses were performed with the Graph Pad InStat 5.0 demo plan ( Graph Pad Software, USA ) . Consequences: Among 115 patients admitted in ICU during the period April 2009 to May 2010, 45 patients were of SIRS, 39 patients were in sepsis and 31 patients in province of infected daze ( Table 1 ) . Sepsis was diagnosed on the footing of specific civilization studies from assorted possible sites of infection, including blood civilization study. Out of 115 patients studied there were 67 male patients and 48 females with a mean ( SD ) age of 37.5 ( 6 ) old ages. Mean serum creatinine degrees in healthy control group was 0.83 AÂ ± 0.26 mg/dl, runing from 0.4 to 1.6 mg/dl. In SIRS group, the average serum creatinine degrees were 3.45 AÂ ± 1.26 mg/dl, runing from 1.2 to 6.2 mg/dl ( Figure 1 ) . The APACHE II and SOFA score correlated linearly with serum creatinine degrees ( r2=0.74, P lt ; 0.001 for APACHE A ; r2=0.69, P lt ; 0.001 for SOFA ; Figure2 ) bespeaking nephritic hurt with badness of redness. In sepsis patients average degrees were 7.15 AÂ ± 1.3, runing from 4.0 to 9.3 mg/dl. Pearson ‘s coefficient showed additive correlativity of serum creatinine and sepsis badness tonss ( r2 = 0.65, P lt ; 0.001 for APACHE and r2 = 0.62, P lt ; 0.001 for SOFA ; Figure2 ) . In patients of infected daze with nephritic disfunction really high serum creatinine degrees were observed with mean of 10.31 AÂ ± 2.29 mg/dl with values runing from 6.0 to 15.2 mg/dl, these values were significantly ( P lt ; 0.01 ) higher than those with sepsis ( 7.01 AÂ ± 1.3 mg/dl ) , SIRS ( 3.49 AÂ ± 1.10 mg/dl ) and the control group ( 0.83 AÂ ± 0.26 mg/dl ) . Detection of metabolic acidosis in arterial blood gas analysis was evaluated farther by blood lactate appraisal ( Figure 3 ) . Blood lactate degrees in SIRS group were ( 5.14 AÂ ± 1.24mmol/L ) with scope from 2.2 to 7.8 mmol/L. Similarly blood lactate degrees in sepsis ( 7.73 AÂ ± 1.4mmol/L ) and infected daze group ( 9.53 AÂ ± 1.2mmol/L ) were significantly high ( 95 % CI in sepsis 7.25 to 8.21 ; daze 8.9 to 10.16 mmol/L ) . In control group mean values were 0.93 AÂ ± 0.39mmol/L ( 95 % CI 0.84 to 1.0 mmol/L ) . In order to detect a relation between extent of nephritic hurt and oncoming of infected daze, creatinine clearance ( taken as step of nephritic map ) was so compared with blood lactate degrees ( taken as index of anaerobiotic metamorphosis and daze ) , Pearson ‘s coefficient showed reverse relation between lifting lactate degrees and Creatinine clearance in patients with terrible sepsis and infected daze ( Figure 4 ; r2=0.48, P lt ; 0.001in sepsis ; r2=0.56, P lt ; 0.001in infected daze ) . The patients included in this survey were non given any nephrotoxic drugs and drug dose were modified as per criterion chronic nephritic disease guideline to forestall farther nephritic hurt [ 14 ] . Discussion: Patients come oning to infected daze during their stay in ICU may hold altered sensorium, deranged liver map, malabsorption syndrome or may hold respiratory trouble. It was observed in our survey that all such patients with infected daze have one common characteristic of crazed kidney map with AKI. The pathophysiology of AKI in infected daze is ill understood due to miss of histopathologic information, which in bend requires nephritic biopsy to observe any parenchymal or vascular alterations in nephritic tissue ; such biopsies are non routinely performed in most ICU set up. [ 15,16 ] In absence of such information, we performed an indirect appraisal of nephritic map during oncoming of infected daze. These observations were based on serum creatinine degrees and creatinine clearance which was so correlated with disease badness tonss ( APACHE II and SOFA ) and serum lactate degrees ( index of anaerobiotic metamorphosis and daze ) . Assorted carnal surveies of AKI have been done which helps in more complex and invasive measurings of nephritic maps. [ 17 ] Most of these carnal surveies were based on either ischemia-reperfusion hurt or drug induced hurt and informations generated from such surveies may assist us in understanding the pathophysiology in a infected patient with AKI. A major paradigm developed from these observations in animate beings and worlds with daze is that AKI is due to nephritic hypoperfusion and ischaemia. This fact supported our position of utilizing AKI as index for decreased organ perfusion and oncoming of infected daze. [ 18 ] Under basal conditions blood flow to kidney is 360 ml/min/100gm of tissue where as blood flow to encephalon ( 50ml/min/100gm ) , bosom ( 70ml/min/100gm ) , lungs ( 25ml/min/100gm ) and liver ( 95ml/min/100gm ) . [ 19 ] Among all the variety meats, kidneys have really high flow rates, approximately three times higher than other critical variety meats, therefore metab olic maps of kidneys were more likely to be affected earliest by decrease in blood flow during infected daze, this may ensue non merely in a decrease in glomerular filtration but besides, in metabolic impairment perchance doing cell decease, acute cannular mortification and terrible AKI. [ 20 ] Glomerular filtration rate ( GFR ) is governed by glomerular filtration force per unit area, which in bend is determined by the relationship between the sensory nerve and motorial arteriolas. When the sensory nerve arteriola constricts due to hypoxia in infected daze, glomerular filtration force per unit area will fall and urine end product and GFR will besides diminish, ensuing reduced creatinine clearance and increased serum creatinine. [ 21 ] Arterial lactate concentration correlates with badness of infected daze and reflects metabolic changes associated with hemodynamic via media. Therefore, the association between high lactate degree and diminishing creatinine clearance are built-in to the badness of the daze and of multi-organ failure. [ 22 ] In add-on, epinephrine extract during infected daze besides enhances lactate production by itself ; the higher adrenaline dosage required in more terrible patients may besides hold contributed to this association. Following the natural history of infected daze in most ICU, it is impossible to happen patients deceasing of infected daze but without nephritic failure, the huge bulk of patients deceasing of multiorgan failure has a outstanding nephritic constituent and requires nephritic replacing therapy during their class in ICU. Renal biopsy during infected daze is non performed routinely because of important hazards owing to azotemic or infected coagulopathy and patient instability. However, this restriction does non impair the relevancy of our observations sing the pathophysiology of infected daze, as kidneys have highest blood flow per gm of tissue and AKI is changeless characteristic of terminal phase multiorgan failure so any via media in nephritic map in critically sick patients should be considered as indicant of decreased organ map and likely oncoming of infected daze. Decision: Kidneies are invariably involved in multiorgan failure of infected daze. Nephritic lesions associated with AKI in infected daze are more complex than the simple ague cannular hurt, so reduced creatinine clearance should be regarded as index of underlying mechanism of decreased organ perfusion and likely possibility of oncoming of infected daze in critically sick patients. 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Sunday, April 26, 2020

Napoleon Biography Essays - House Of Bonaparte, Napoleon, Ajaccio

Napoleon Biography Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica, and was given the name Napoleone Buonaperte. He was the second of eight children of Carlo and Letizia Buonaperte, both of the Corsican-ltalian gentry. Before Napoleone, no Buonaparte had ever been a professional soldier. His father Carlo, was a lawyer who had fought for Corsican independence, but after the French occupied the island in 1768, he served as a prosecutor and ajudge and entered the French aristocracy as a count. Through his father's influence, Napoleone was educated at the expense of King Louis XVI, at Brienne and the Ecole Militaire, in Paris. Napoleone graduated in 1785, at the age of 16, and joined the artillery as a second lieutenant. After the revolution began in France, he became a lieutenant colonel (1791) in the Corsican National Guard. However, when Corsica declared independence in 1793, Buonaperte, a Republican, and a French patriot, fled to France with his family. He was assigned, as captain, to an army besieging Toulon, a naval base that was aided by a British fleet, while in revolt against the republic. It was here that Napoleone Buonaperte officially changed his name to Napoleon Bonaparte, feeling that it looked "more French". It was here too that Napoleon replaced a wounded artillery general, and seized ground where his guns could drive the British fleet from the harbor, and Toulon fell. As a result of his accomplishments, Bonapatre was promoted to brigadier general at the age of 24. In 1795, he saved the revolutionary government by dispersing an insurgent mob in Paris. Then in 1796 he married

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The True Story of David Ghantt and the Loomis Fargo Heist

The True Story of David Ghantt and the Loomis Fargo Heist SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips On the evening of October 4, 1997, one man loaded $17.3 million in cash from the vaults of Loomis, Fargo Co. into the back of a van. When he was done, the man drove off to a nearby printing press, where the money was distributed into private vehicles amongst a handful of people. Pocketing $50,000 for himself, that man, named David Ghantt, hopped into a car of his own and headed towards Mexico. David Scott Ghantt: Vault Supervisor David Scott Ghantt was the vault supervisor at the regional branch of Loomis, Fargo Co. in Charlotte, North Carolina. Before he decided to steal $17 million from the bank, Ghantt had worked for years as a relatively taciturn and compliant employee. Bubbling under the surface, however, was a deep frustration at the way he was treated. Said Ghantt, â€Å"... one day life kinda slapped me in the face. I was working sometimes 75-80 hours a week at $8.15 an hour. I didn’t even have a real home life because I was never there. I was working all the time and unhappy†¦ I felt cornered and one day the joking in the break room about robbing the place suddenly didn’t seem so far-fetched.† Ghantt was joking in the breakroom with fellow Loomis Fargo employee Kelly Campbell. The two struck up a friendship during work that would continue after Campbell left the company. The jokes between Ghantt and Campbell about their disgruntlement with their jobs took on a more serious note when Campbell introduced Ghantt to an old high school classmate of hers named Steve Chambers. According to Campbell, Chambers could help Ghantt execute a massive cash robbery of the vault at Loomis Fargo in one night. Fed up, exhausted, and seeing a way out, Ghantt agreed. The Loomis Fargo Heist Over the next months, Ghantt, Campbell, and Chambers developed a plan. Working by himself, Ghantt would commit the robbery and then flee for Mexico, leaving the bulk of the cash with Chambers. While Ghantt waited for the heat from the robbery to die down, Chambers would send Ghantt small amounts of money. Eventually, Ghantt would return to the United States and the full sum would be split up between the conspirators. On the night of October 4, the plan went into action. Ghantt sent home a new employee and quickly loaded the money into the back of a bank van. After meeting up with Chambers, Campbell, and some other co-conspirators, Ghantt hightailed it to Mexico with $50,000 in cash in his car. He made it across the border just as his deception was discovered. Loomis Fargo Heist Investigation: David Ghantt, Suspect The morning after the height, employees of Loomis Fargo realized they couldn’t open the vault. They called the police, who brought in the FBI, classifying the heist as a bank robbery. From the beginning, the FBI’s prime suspect was David Ghantt. Not only was Ghantt the only unaccounted for employee the morning after the heist, there was also footage of Ghantt moving the cash into the back of the Loomis Fargo van. Two days after the heist, the FBI found the missing van with $3.3 million of cash left in it. Ghantt and his compatriots, it turns out, had underestimated how bulky money is. They left behind the cash they couldn’t fit in their cars. The FBI quickly connected Ghantt to Campbell, who was a former Loomis Fargo employee. The connection to Chambers took more time. Anonymous tips had the FBI monitoring Chambers’ calls. Eventually, Ghantt called in from Mexico, seeking more money, and the FBI officially recognized Chambers as a co-conspirator. Chambers, it turned out, became the biggest source of evidence for the FBI. In addition to his phone calls with Ghantt, Chambers began extravagantly spending the money, even though the co-conspirators had agreed to lay low for a year or two. Together with his wife, Chambers bought a new luxury home (upgrading from his mobile home), a BMW Z3, and some extravagant furnishings. Chambers’ wife, Michelle, bought a minivan in cash and began taking frequent trips to the bank to make deposits. While she made small deposits at first, she became more reckless, eventually making a deposit of thousands of dollars in cash, telling the teller not to worry: â€Å"It’s not drug money.† No Honor Among Thieves Across the border in Mexico, Ghantt was also living it up. He stayed at a luxury hotel and took scuba diving lesson. Having only brought $50,000 in cash, however, Ghantt soon found himself short on funds. When Ghantt called Chambers to have the latter wire him more money, Chambers sent just a few thousand dollars. As the FBI listened in to Chambers’ calls, they discovered that he was also planning to have Ghantt assassinated, hoping to keep all the money for himself. The FBI knew they needed to make their move. On March 1, 1988, Mexican police arrested Ghantt at Playa del Carmen. The next day, the Chambers’, Campbell, and some other notable parties were arrested in Charlotte. Ten days later, the group was indicted for bank larceny and money laundering. Thirteen friends and family members were also charged with money laundering, as they had helped Ghantt, Chambers, Campbell, and the others deposit money illegally. All of the defendants except for one pleaded guilty and accepted their sentences. Some of the friends and family members received parole, while Ghantt was sentenced to seven and a half years in prison. He completed his prison sentence in November 2006. Loomis Fargo Heist: Legacy The Loomis Fargo heist became something of a media lightning rod. The details of the heist itself, coupled with the missteps the crew made after stealing the money, attracted the attention of writers and movie producers. A comedy film called Masterminds, based on the Loomis Fargo heist and starring Zach Galifianakis, Kristen Wiig, Owen Wilson, and Jason Sudeikis, was released in 2016. David Ghantt attended the premiere. What's Next? Learning about US history? If so,check out some of these books on our AP History Exam reading list. One of the best ways to learn more about U.S. history is to make sure you’re taking history classes. Most high schools offer a variety of history classes, so make sure you’re taking the right ones for you. Did you know that the SAT offers subject exams, too? This article will teach you more about the SAT subject tests and help you decide whether you should take them.

Monday, March 2, 2020

11 ways to stop procrastinating and get writing

11 ways to stop procrastinating and get writing 11 ways to stop procrastinating and get writing Do you ever feel like youre always in a face-off with your word processor – and losing? If so, you wont be surprised to hear that one of the biggest problems nearly everyone faces when they have something to write is getting started. Call it writers block. Call it finding your muse. Call it spending two hours on Facebook for every two lines you write. Whatever you call it, getting started is hard. Most of us are guilty of procrastinating sometimes – especially when we have something important to write. Thankfully, there are lots of ways you can tackle this problem. Dont think that finding the writing process horribly painful is inevitable. Its not. By using the right tools and techniques and going in with the right mindset, you can be more productive and spend less time agonising about your writing. Ive put together eleven of the best ways of doing this. Some get you unstuck. Some get your thinking clear. Others just kill distractions. Together, they attack the problem of getting started from multiple angles. Try them. Get writing. And spend less time staring into the blank whiteness of Document1.doc. 1) Use a timer A lot of the time, it feels like the only real finishing line in writing is when youve finally hit send on an email or handed in a report. That reward is a long way away and youre not sure when its coming. Its no wonder its hard to stay motivated. However, writing is much easier if you give yourself a clear finishing line – or a few of them. A timer can help. Heres how to do it: Write down a mini-task thats related to writing your document – say, researching some figures or writing your first draft. Use a timer (like this one) and set it for 25 minutes. Work on the mini-task you wrote down until the timer goes off. Take a break. You dont have to complete the mini-task. Thats not what counts as success here. Success is now defined as working on the problem for twenty-five minutes. Its far easier than just aiming for a really distant finishing line. Try it. Many people find it works. You can extend this method even further by trying the Pomodoro Technique. 2) Get your research done first Research can be the biggest part of your preparation. So if youre really not sure what it is youre writing about, you need to get back to the drawing board. Too many people struggle on, trying to make everything come together in one go. But lets say you have your ideas together, and you cant get unstuck because you cant figure out what needs to go in. Read on. 3) Write a mind map If writing is the problem, then try not writing. I know this sounds strange. But there are several ways you can move forward without having to write a single word of your document. Mind maps are one. Theyre a versatile tool (we go into lots of detail about these in our online-training programme e360). But the core idea is very simple. To create a mind map, follow these steps: Note down the subject in the middle of the page. Write the aspects of the subject around it. Look at each aspect and think about it. Draw a line for each new idea or piece of information and continue this process, radiating outwards. Keep asking questions such as Why?, How?, What?, When?, Where? and Who? until you’re satisfied you’ve put down everything you know about the subject. Just getting something down on paper will help you get into the flow. The same applies when youre face to face with your dreaded nemesis: the blank screen 4) Write absolute gibberish Hwgeuwhfeouwfewlfjewfn. Blub blub blub blub flep flep flep flep. Trolololololo. Feel better? Great. The relief of filling up the white space and getting your fingers moving can be good in itself for banishing the fear of getting going. (Ditch any idea that this is inherently ridiculous – if it gets you started, that’s all that matters.) The next tactic shows how you can take this complete freedom even further. 5) Get a draft written first: it doesnt have to be perfect If you write total gibberish, writing is as easy as randomly mashing the keyboard. If you aim for perfect writing first time, writing seems almost impossible. Thats because it is very, very hard to write brilliant, error-free content first time. Excellent content comes with gradual refinement by revising and editing your writing. But if you try and do writing and editing at the same time, youre paralysing yourself for no good reason. So draft freely. Try drafting more quickly than youre comfortable with, leaving spelling mistakes or sentences that dont sound that great behind – knowing you will return to fix your writing later. And take some pressure off yourself: 6) Stop aiming for the perfect document: the 90 per cent rule Trying to give 100 per cent can be a recipe for failure. The sports psychologist Robert Kriegel saw this while working with some Olympic sprinting hopefuls. The sprinters were tense and tight during practice runs. So Kriegel told them to try running at 90 per cent of their normal intensity. It had surprising results. The group ran faster when they were trying less. In fact, one sprinter even set an unofficial world record. Its the same with writing. Trying to be the 100 per cent complete greatest professional who will write the best of all possible documents is too much pressure. Youll do better by giving yourself (just a little) bit of slack. 7) Ask whoever needs the document what they want If youre really stuck, it may just be because you dont really know what you should write and why. Thats a pretty hard thing to admit, especially if youre deep in the writing process. But for some documents, it can be best to pull yourself away from your screen and ask whomever youre writing for what they want. This can be something as simple as, ‘Youve asked for a report on the incident, so Im going to write what happened and why it happened, interview everyone who was involved and ask them what they did, and give some recommendations to make sure it doesnt happen again.’ At this point, you might find out that youre missing a big section, or conversely that what youre writing is more detail than they want. Either way, getting some clarity on what’s expected will make every other part of your writing easier. (But what if you cant ask them? In that case, you can profile the reader in your head.) 8) Discipline yourself: install something that will force you to get focused Some of the best engineers, psychologists, designers and marketers in the world have collaborated to make the most distracting websites possible. Theyve developed ways of systematically undermining your willpower and keeping you hooked. And theyre getting better all the time. This can occasionally cause minor problems in staying focused. So, instead of fighting the siren call of these websites with your willpower, it can be best just to block all such sites completely. The tools RescueTime and SelfControl both help you do this. Many people find the compulsion to flip to their favourite wasting-time site fades once theyve run into a few messages telling them that its blocked. After a while, it gets easier to get into a state of flow and get on with your writing. 9) Take away your options: stop playing with fonts One of the most popular articles weve ever written is The best fonts for business documents – in the time youve been reading this, its very likely that several people have read that article. Were happy people are interested in looking professional, and any reduction in the number of serious business documents written in Comic Sans is a good thing. But, unfortunately, too many people look at formatting first, rather than last. Instead of drafting your document in Word, which is constantly offering you a range of seductive fonts and line heights and margin sizes and bullet-point options (and on and on and on), it can be better just to strip all this out. Draft does this. Its a site that lets you write documents in your browser, and we swear by it at Emphasis. The interface limits your formatting options and lets you get on with writing. (You can read our review of it here.) Best of all? A completely functional version is free (its the one I used to write this article). 10) Speak to someone As children, we communicated our ideas by speaking long before we started doing so in writing. For many people, speaking still comes more naturally and easily than writing once they’re adults. So if youre struggling, stop typing and talk to someone. Tell them the main points of what youre writing about and why. Youll find that, when youre speaking more conversationally, you cant get away with being vague or speaking in professionalese. Then, once the ideas are flowing, transfer them to the page. If you havent got anyone to talk to, you can imagine talking to someone. (Or talk to yourself – though doing this unannounced in the middle of the office might make it look like the pressure of writing has really got to you.) 11) Remind yourself why youre writing Too often, we can get so lost in the process of writing that we dont remember why were writing. But its good to keep your why in mind. If you have a to-do list for your document, try writing at the top make the customer feel happy or get basics of information to manager so we can get this project moving – or whatever applies to your piece of work. Moving away from your words and back to the main purpose of what youre doing makes it easier to get on with mini subtasks (like writing a first draft). Thats because you can see what youre doing in the context of something more meaningful. Try something new If you find yourself habitually procrastinating, you need to change at least some of your writing habits. This can feel scary. A good example is writing faster than youre comfortable with, leaving imperfect sentences in your wake. If youre used to writing something really, really good and deleting each sentence and re-writing as you go, its going to be tough when you first try writing more freely. But you should try. If theres anything to be learned from the extremely diverse habits of famous authors, its that they found their own best habits for writing well. Youre just as much a unique individual as they are. Try some of the ideas here, find what works for you, and get writing. If youd like to learn more about how to tackle other challenges in writing, check out our in-person courses for individuals and companies or our online-training programme e360 – or just get in touch. Image credit: Nataly Studio / Shutterstock

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Develop a Change Management Plan for CrysTel Essay

Develop a Change Management Plan for CrysTel - Essay Example into examining how this change process will be executed with particular attention to leadership style that can ensure continuous success of the process. Also, measures and ways to monitor the change process will be examined. The project will end with an examination of the challenges that the organization may face in the foreseeable future spanning from the next five to ten years and possible contingent solutions to these problems. We begin by talking about what organizational change is and then examining the reasons why it happens or is necessary in every organization. Organizational change or change in general can be defined from a variety of points depending on the perception of the user. An individual or employee in an organization may look at a new post or position as a change while higher management may feel it is unimportant. (Cao et al, 2000, p187). Changes viewed also by management may also not be looked upon as change by outsiders like competitors or suppliers. This has led to the categorizing of change in various ways, some of which include strategic and non-strategic change, incremental and radical change, changes of identity, co-ordination and control, planned and emergent change, change in terms of scale, human-centered change in terms of individual, group and inter-group or organizational level, quantum change and so on. (Cao et al, 2000, p187; Todnem, 2005, p372). Changes can also be structural , that is dealing with the physical alteration of an organization like its buildings and equipment or even employees. (Bennett & Durkin, 2000). On the other hand, it may be a change in process, that is, the way the related group of tasks are combined to create value for a target customer. (Cao et al, 2000, p188). A change can as well be in functions, that is, the decision system or policy and resource allocation duties of a particular element of an organization. There can also be changes in values, beliefs and human behavior in terms of social